Chacalataya, Bolivia – 2002

Bolivia is not the country to choose for baseline observations at sea level but arrival in La Paz gives one the opportunity of acute hypoxia studies at approx 3500m.

Fifteen members were joined by Steve Harris and Steve Myers from QinetiQ, by Prof Joe Fisher and four members of the Department of Anaesthetics, University of Toronto and by Phil Collins from ScanMed Medical for a successful collaborative expedition. After acclimatising in La Paz the group travelled by bus to refugio Huayna Potosi (4750m) and then to the ski station on Chacultaya (5260m).

The main aims of the experiments were to assess the effect of exercise on cerebral oxygenation and on the proteinuria and to regulate the loss of carbon dioxide. Experiments were based on the modified supine cycle ergometer (Alticycle) and on the Fisher rebreathing circuit. Other experiments involved assessment of cerebral blood flow by oxygen bolus and after sildenafil, the effects of hyperventilation, and the assessment of truncal ataxia using the sharpened Romberg test.

Publications:

  1. Azami T, Preiss D, Goodman L, Somogyi R, Prisman E, Vesely A, Iscoe S, Pattinson K and Bradwell A. Hypocapnia contributes little to increasing SaO2 at altitude. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 445, 68.  
  2. Bradwell A, Brearey S, Harris S, Myers S and Imray C. Effect of hard exercise on proteinuria at high altitude. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 436, 31.
  3. Bradwell A, Johnson B, Wright A, Beazley MF, Hillenbrand P and Harvey T. The sharpened Romberg test and altitude sickness. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 454, 102. 
  4. Bradwell A, Johnson B, Imray C, Simmons J and Wright A. Wobble board (WB) acute mountain sickness (AMS) and cerebral regional oxygenation (SpO2). 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 454, 101. 
  5. Chan C, Collins P, Bradwell AR, Imray C, Clarke T, Breary S and Milles J. The effect of sildefanil (Viagra) on cerebral haemodynamics at altitude. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 450, 88. 
  6. Chan C, Collins P, Imray C, Pattinson K, Chesner I, Clarke T, Harvey T and BMRES. Improved cerebral oxygenation during acute hyperventilation at altitude is not due to improved cerebral blood flow. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 443, 58. 
  7. Chan C, Collins P, Wright A, Pattinson K, Forster P and Imray C. The effect of an oxygen bolus on cerebral oxygenation and blood flow at altitude. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 442, 55. 
  8. Collins P, Harvey T, Beazley M, Hillenbrand P and Imray C. Non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement at high altitude. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 448, 77. 
  9. Harris SJ, Myers S, Imray C, Breary S and Bradwell A. Supine exercise cycle ergometer for cerebral studies. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 443, 57. 
  10. Imray C, Chan C, Collins P, Myers S, Harris S, Wright A, Bradwell A and BMRES. Cerebral desaturation at VO2 max at high altitude (5250 m). 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 442, 53. 
  11. Imray CHE, Chan C, Wright AD and BMRES. Perfusion cérébrale en haute altitude. Sang Thrombose Vaisseaux 2003; 15(1): 17-27. 
  12. Imray CHE, Walsh S, Clarke T, Tiivas C, Hoar H, Harvey TC, Chan CWM, Forster PJG, Bradwell AR, Wright AD and BMRES. Effects of breathing air containing 3% carbon dioxide, 35% oxygen or a mixture of 3% carbon dioxide/35% oxygen on cerebral and peripheral oxygenation at 150 m and 3,459 m. Clinical Science 2003; 104(3): 203-210. 
  13. Myers S, Harris S, Chesner I and Bradwell AR. Maximal oxygen uptake at altitude using a breath-by-breath metabolic analyser and supine cycle ergometer. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 439, 41. 
  14. Pattinson K, Myers S, Milles J and Imray C. Oxygen consumption whilst climbing mountains. Is a slow plod strategy better than rush and rest? 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 436, 34. 
  15. Pattinson K, Myers S, and Gardner-Thorpe C. Capnography at high altitude. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 444, 64. 
  16. Pattinson K, Beazley MF, Forster P, Hillenbrand P, Somogyi R, Preiss D, Prisman E, Vesley A and Goodman L. Treatment of HAPE and HACE with novel breathing system: Case report. 13thInternational Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 449, 85. 
  17. Pattinson K. Altitude sickness in youth group. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 2003; 14: 153. 
  18. Prisman E, Vesely A, Preiss D, Somogyi R, Azami T, Collins P, Imray C, Bradwell A and Fisher J. Increased PO2 gradient not cerebral blood flow improves brain oxygenation at altitude. 13thInternational Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 442, 54. 
  19. Somogyi R, Fisher J, Preiss D, Vesely A, Prisman E, Bradwell A, Azami T, Mahamed S and Duffin J. What happens to respiratory chemoreflexes at altitude? 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 446, 69. 
  20. Vesely A, Somogyi R, Azami T, Preiss D, Prisman E, Goodman L, Iscoe S, Pattinson K, Bradwell A, Imray C, Fisher J, and BMRES. Field testing of a new high altitude O2 delivery system in the Bolivian Andes. 13th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2003; 3: 435, 24.
  21. Imray CHE, Pattinson KTS, Myers S and Wright AD. ‘Virtual altitude’: a hypothesis which may explain why exercise exacerbates AMS. 14th International Hypoxia Symposium High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2004; 5: 488, 44. 
  22. Imray CHE, Kennedy CH, Pattinson K, Brearey S and Wright AD. Self-assessment of acute mountain sickness on adolescents: A pilot study. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 2004; 15: 202-206. 
  23. Pattinson K, Myers S, and Gardner-Thorpe C. Problems with capnography at high altitude. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 69-72. 
  24. Pattinson KTS, Barry P, Davis P, Imray CHE, Mason NP, Richards P, Szawarski P and Hillenbrandt D. Advances in mountain medicine education in the United Kingdom. 14th International Hypoxia Symposium High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2004; 5: 498, 69. 
  25. Wright A, Imray C, Collins P, Pattinson K, Myers S, Harris S, Chan C and Bradwell AR. Blood pressure changes during exercise at altitude. 14th International Hypoxia Symposium High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2004; 5: 509, 102.
  26. Chan C, Hoar H, Pattinson K, Bradwell J, Wright A, Imray C and BMRES. The effect of sildenafil on cerebral oxygenation at altitude. 14th International Hypoxia Symposium. Hypoxia and Exercise Eds; RC Roach, PD Wagner, PH Hackett. 2005; 588: 339, 145. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
  27. Chan CWM, Hoar H, Pattinson K, Bradwell AR, Wright AD, Imray CHE and BMRES. Effect of sildenafil and acclimatization on cerebral oxygenation at altitude. Clinical Science 2005; 109(3): 319-324. 
  28. Imray CHE, Myers SD, Pattinson KTS, Bradwell AR, Chan CW, Harris S, Collins P, Wright AD and BMRES. Effects of exercise on cerebral perfusion in humans at high altitude. Journal of Applied Physiology 2005; 99: 699-706.
  29. Johnson BG, Simmons J, Wright AD, Hillenbrand P, Beazley MF, Sutton I, Imray CHE and BMRES. Ataxia at altitude measured on a wobble board. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 2005; 16: 42-46. 
  30. Johnson BG, Wright AD, Beazley MF, Harvey TC, Hillenbrand P, Imray CHE and BMRES. The sharpened Romberg test for assessing ataxia in mild acute mountain sickness. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 2005; 16: 62-66. 
  31. Pattinson K, Somogyi RB, Fisher JA, Bradwell AR and BMRES. Efficient breathing circuit for use at altitude. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 2005; 16: 101-103. 
  32. Pattinson K and Imray CH. Adolescents at altitude. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 2005; 16(1): 60. 
  33. Pattinson K, Sutherland AI, Smith TG, Dorrington KL and Wright AD. Acute mountain sickness, vitamin C, free radicals and HIF-1alpha. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine2005; 16(3): 172-173. 
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