Kanchenjunga, Nepal – 1999

The Team

  • Leader: Jo Bradwell
  • Deputy leader: Alex Wright.
  • John Simmons, Chris Imray, Peter Forster, Peter Hillenbrand, John Milles, Maggie Beazley, Helen Hoar, Brian Johnson, Jim Evans, Damian Mole, Tim Clarke, Sarah Clarke, (honeymoon couple!) Daniel Simmons, Belinda Simmons, Robert Major, Tom Lupton, Lee Romer.

The plan was to walk up to the Kangchenjuna base camp at Pangpema from Ghunsa then make our base camp above this, at an altitude of 5005m to do the experiments.

On reaching our base camp, ideal except for its angle of 30 degrees, snow started to fall. Despite it being late in the day we decided to leave the perfect avalanche slope and head back below Pangpema to a wide plateau below Wedge peak. The decision then had to be made as to whether to start back to Ghunsa the next morning crossing avalanche slopes before they got too loaded. However dawn revealed deep snow making even a trip to the loo difficult.

We stayed put, some in tents, some in the cow shed and some in “Mrs Miggins” whisky and cheese store. It snowed for 3 days. We spent the time digging out our tents and listening to avalanches crashing off the nearby mountains.

Some experiments were done at this lower altitude before making our escape, past several more avalanches. Experiments included measures of cerebral oxygenation during hypoxic ventilation and in the Certec hyperbaric chamber, mental artithmatic (PASAT) and peg board for cognitative function, urine protein, wobble board for measurement of ataxia and assessment of a new AMS questionnaire. We collaborated with Lee Romer in the sports exercise dept. with studies on respiratory muscle function.

On our return to Kathmandu we learned that Ginette Harrison a former BMRES member and the first woman to climb Kangchenguna had died in an avalanche whilst climbing Dhaulagiri.

Publications:

  1. Beazley MF, Harvey TC, Major R, Bradwell AR and BMRES. Portable nephelometer for specific protein testing in remote locations. IV World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology. High altitude Medicine and Biology 2000; 1: 227, 19 .
  2. Beazley MF, Wright AD, Hillenbrand P, Bradwell AR and BMRES. Acute mountain sickness scoring system. IV World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High altitude Physiology. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2000; 1: 227, 20.
  3. Chan CWM, Forster PJG, Hoar H, Harvey TC, Beazley M, Imray CHE and BMRES. Near-infrared spectroscopy at high altitude – new insights into high altitude physiology. IV World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2000; 1: 235, 50. 
  4. Chan CWM, Forster PJG, Harvey TC, Hoar H, Beazley M, Imray CHE and BMRES. The effect of Acetazolamide on peripheral pulse oximetry in partially acclimatized individuals. IV World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2000; 1: 240, 49.
  5. Forster PJG, Imray CHE, Clarke T, Walsh S, Hoar H, Beazley M and BMRES. Carbon dioxide contributes to the beneficial effect of pressurisation in portable hyperbaric chamber at high altitude. IV World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2000; 1: 240, 71.
  6. Imray CHE, Wright AD, Harvey TC, Chan CWM, Bradwell AR and BMRES. Carbon dioxide at high altitude – a century of investigation and speculation. IV World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2000; 1: 244, 88.
  7. Imray CHE, Brearey S, Clarke T, Hale D, Morgan J and Walsh S. Cerebral Oxygenation at high altitude and the response to carbon dioxide, hyperventilation and oxygen. Clinical Science 2000; 98(2): 159-164.
  8. Wright AD. Book Review: High life. A history of altitude physiology and medicine. Journal of Human Hypertension 2000; 14: 221.
  9. Beazley M, Chan C, Hoar H, Knickenberg C, Forster P, Imray C and the BMRES. Cerebral, hepatic, renal, skeletal muscle and peripheral oxygenation at 0m, 2400m and 5050m. 12thInternational Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 96, 71.
  10. Bradwell A, Romer L, McConnell A, Jones D and BMRES. Changes in respiratory muscle function during exposure to high altitude. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 116, 152.
  11. Bradwell A, Major R and BMRES. Portable nephelometer for specific protein testing in remote locations. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 103, 99.
  12. Bradwell A, Clarke S, Romer L, Hoar H, Chan C, Wright A, Lupton T and Imray C. Hypoxic ventilatory response and acute mountain sickness. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 117, 156.
  13. Hillenbrand P, Wright A, Beazley M, Imray C, Major R, Bradwell A and BMRES. Clinical observations on Az prophylaxis in Nepalese porters. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 104, 103.
  14. Hoar H, Beazley M, Harvey T, Knickenberg C, Chan C, Imray C and the BMRES. Cerebral perfusion at 0m, 2400m and 5050m and the response to voluntary forced hyperventilation. 12thInternational Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 96, 70.
  15. Hoar H, Forster P, Chan C, Clarke T, Harvey T, Knickenberg C, Imray C and the BMRES. Cerebral perfusion in sea level commuters at 5050m elevation. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 96, 72.
  16. Hoar H, Chan C, Forster P, Harvey T, Beazley M, Major R, Imray C and the BMRES. The effect of Acetazolamide on peripheral pulse oximetry and cerebral perfusion in partially acclimatised individuals. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 96, 73.
  17. Imray C, Wright A, Chan C, Clarke T, Forster P and the BMRES. Near infra-red cerebral spectroscopy and the carbon dioxide cerebrovascular reserve. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 95, 66. 
  18. Imray C, Chan C, Forster P, Harvey T, Hoar H, Beazley M and the BMRES. Near infra-red cerebral spectroscopy and the assessment of cerebral blood volume at sea level and correlation with susceptibility to the development of altitude illness. 12thInternational Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 95, 67.
  19. Imray C, Chan C, Forster P, Harvey T, Hoar H, Beazley M and the BMRES. Near infra-red cerebral spectroscopy and the assessment of cerebral blood flow at altitude. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 95, 68.
  20. Imray C, Clarke T, Harvey T, Beazley M, Wright A and Chan C. Transcranial Doppler and near infra-red cerebral spectroscopy: Acetazolamide cerebrovascular reserve capacity at 150m and 4600m. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 95, 69.
  21. Imray C, Harvey T, Beazley M, Wright A, Chan C, Clarke T and BMRES. The effect of 12% oxygen gas mix on peripheral and cerebral oxygenation and the response to supplementary carbon dioxide. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 94, 64.
  22. Imray CHE, Clarke T, Forster PJ, Harvey T, Hoar H, Walsh S, Wright AD and BMRES. Carbon dioxide contributes to the beneficial effect of pressurization in a portable hyperbaric chamber at high altitude. Clinical Science 2001; 100(2): 151-157. 
  23. Milles J, Evans J and BMRES. The effect of altitude on cognitive function using the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT). 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 101, 93.
  24. Wright A, Johnson B, Simmons J and BMRES. A new method for measuring unsteadiness at altitude. 12th International Hypoxia Symposium. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2001; 2: 104, 102.
  25. Bradwell AR, Forster PJ and BMRES. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) in children. V World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology, and the VIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Medicina y Auxilio en Montaña, Barcelona, Spain, April 18-22, 2002. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2002; 3(1): 109, 42. 
  26. Hillenbrand P, Pahari A, Soon Y, Subedi D, Bajracharya R, Gurung P, Lal B, Marahatta R, Pradhan S, Rai D, Sharma S, Wright AD, Bradwell AR and BMRES. Prevention of acute mountain sickness by acetazolamide in Nepali porters: A double blind controlled trial. V World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology, and the VIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Medicina y Auxilio en Montaña, Barcelona, Spain, April 18-22, 2002. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2002; 3(1): 101, 9. 
  27. Imray CHE, Hoar H, Beazley M, Wright AD, Bradwell AR, Chan C and BMRES. Cerebral oxygen delivery falls with voluntary forced hyperventilation at altitude. V World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology, and the VIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Medicina y Auxilio en Montaña, Barcelona, Spain, April 18-22, 2002. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2002; 3(1): 106, 32. 
  28. Imray, CHE, Wright AW, Chan, C, Bradwell AR and BMRES. 3% Carbon dioxide increases cerebral oxygen delivery when breathing hypoxic gas mixtures. V World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology, and the VIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Medicina y Auxilio en Montaña, Barcelona, Spain, April 18-22, 2002. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2002; 3(1): 106, 30. 
  29. Imray CHE, Walsh S, Clarke T, Hoar H, Harvey TC, Chan CWM, Forster P and BMRES. 3% Carbon dioxide increases cerebral oxygen delivery at 150m and 3549m. V World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology, and the VIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Medicina y Auxilio en Montaña, Barcelona, Spain, April 18-22, 2002. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2002; 3(1): 106, 31. 
  30. Major R, Ainsworth H, Wright AD and BMRES. Acute mountain sickness and acetazolamide: What do trekkers know? V World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology, and the VIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Medicina y Auxilio en Montaña, Barcelona, Spain, April 18-22, 2002. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2002; 3(1): 105, 27. 
  31. Subedi D, Marahatta R, Sharma S, Hillenbrand P, Soon Y and BMRES. Trekkers’ awareness of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and acetazolamide. V World Congress on Mountain Medicine and High Altitude Physiology, and the VIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Medicina y Auxilio en Montaña, Barcelona, Spain, April 18-22, 2002. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 2002; 3(1): 101, 10. 
  32. Hillenbrand P, Pahari AK, Soon Y, Subedi D, Bajracharya R, Gunrung P, Lal BK, Marahatta R, Pradhan S, Rai D, Sharma S and BMRES. Prevention of acute mountain sickness by acetazolamide in Nepali porters: A double-blind controlled trial. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 2006; 17: 87-93. 
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